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A Situational Analysis of a Strategic Marketing Plan


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If you are on the way to embark on running a long-term marketing campaign, make sure that you already have a thorough situational analysis. A situational analysis is a set of methods used to thoroughly examine both internal and external factors of any business and their impacts on the company’s performance. Only after doing situational analysis, can the marketing strategy be structured. Therefore, a situational analysis is of utmost importance to any strategic marketing plan.

A Situational Analysis of a Strategic Marketing Plan

What is a Situational Analysis?

A situational analysis is an in-depth examination and evaluation of an organization’s internal and external environments to understand its current position, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. It’s a strategic tool used by businesses, nonprofits, and other entities to gain insights into various factors that can impact their operations, decision-making, and future planning.

  • Internal Analysis: Examines the organization’s internal factors, including its resources, capabilities, structure, culture, strengths, and weaknesses.

  • External Analysis: Evaluates external factors such as market trends, competition, economic conditions, technological advancements, legal and regulatory changes, social factors, and customer behavior.

Importance of a situational analysis

  • Strategic Planning: Helps in formulating effective strategies by understanding the organization’s current position and aligning goals with its capabilities and market opportunities.

  • Risk Assessment: Identifies potential risks and threats that might affect the organization’s operations, allowing proactive measures to mitigate them.

  • Decision Making: Provides a comprehensive understanding of the internal and external environment, aiding informed decision-making across various departments.

  • Competitive Positioning: Helps in understanding the competitive landscape, enabling the organization to differentiate itself and capitalize on strengths.

  • Adaptation to Changes: Facilitates adaptation to changing market conditions, customer preferences, and technological advancements.

  • Resource Allocation: Assists in allocating resources effectively by identifying areas that require improvement or investment.

Definition, classification and function

Considerations within a situation analysis

A strong situation analysis goes beyond a superficial review. It requires examining your business from multiple angles to gain a comprehensive understanding. This will be explored further in the text. When performing a situation analysis, you should consider the following factors:

  • Product situation: Let’s identify what you’re currently offering. Broaden the definition of “product” to encompass all the methods you use to satisfy your customers’ needs. This includes the core offering itself, but also any additional services you provide. Don’t forget about customer service - its quality significantly impacts how customers perceive your overall product.

  • Competitive situation: A complete situation analysis requires understanding your competitors’ landscape. Your strategy should consider their position, and VRIO analysis can be a helpful tool to assess their long-term strengths.

  • Strategic assessment: Analyzing various aspects of your business situation (product, competition, etc.) will reveal strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). To systematically identify and document these, conduct a formal SWOT analysis with your team.

  • Environmental factors: Environmental factors, internal and external, influence organizations. Internally, issues like communication breakdowns or leadership changes matter. Externally, broader factors such as economic recessions or legal constraints play a role. Stimulus checks exemplify significant external influence.

  • Distribution situation: Your product’s route to customers, whether through app stores, physical outlets, etc., is your distribution scenario. It’s pivotal for your business, as it’s how you connect with customers. Analyzing this in your situation assessment can reveal opportunities to enhance customer reach, engagement, and retention.

Components of a Situation Analysis

Internal Factors


  • Financial Resources: Assessing the organization’s financial health, cash flow, budget, and investments.

  • Physical Resources: Evaluating assets, facilities, equipment, and infrastructure.

  • Human Resources: Analyzing the skills, knowledge, experience, and capacity of the workforce.

Capabilities and Core Competencies

  • Identifying the unique strengths and skills that give the organization a competitive advantage.

  • Evaluating areas where the organization excels compared to competitors.

Organizational Structure and Culture

  • Examining the hierarchy, communication channels, decision-making processes, and the overall culture within the organization.

  • Understanding how the culture and structure influence productivity and innovation.

Products or Services

  • Assessing the quality, uniqueness, and market positioning of products or services offered.

  • Evaluating the product life cycle and potential for innovation or improvement.

Marketing and Sales

  • Analyzing marketing strategies, sales channels, customer relationships, and brand perception.

  • Assessing the effectiveness of current marketing campaigns and sales efforts.

External Factors

Market Analysis

  • Market Trends: Identifying current and emerging trends in the industry that can impact the organization.

  • Market Size and Growth: Understanding the size of the market and its potential for growth.

Competitive Analysis

  • Competitor Assessment: Analyzing competitors’ strengths, weaknesses, market share, and strategies.

  • Industry Structure: Understanding the competitive landscape and barriers to entry or expansion.

Economic Factors

  • Macroeconomic Conditions: Evaluating factors like inflation, interest rates, economic growth, and unemployment that can affect the business environment.

  • Consumer Behavior: Understanding how economic factors influence consumer spending patterns and purchasing decisions.

Technological Analysis

  • Assessing the impact of technological advancements on the industry and the organization’s operations.

  • Evaluating the organization’s technological capabilities and potential for innovation.

  • Understanding laws, regulations, and compliance requirements that affect the industry or organization.

  • Assessing potential legal risks and changes in regulations that may impact operations.

Internal Factors External Factors
Characteristics within the organization Influences outside the organization
Controlled or influenced directly by the organization Beyond the organization's control
Resources (financial, human, physical)
Organizational culture and structure
Products or services
Marketing and sales strategies
Market trends
Competitor analysis
Economic conditions
Technological advancements
Focus on strengths and weaknesses Focus on opportunities and threats
Impact decisions and operations Impact industry and market dynamics

Methods to Apply a Situation Analysis


Applying a SWOT analysis involves a systematic evaluation of an organization’s internal strengths and weaknesses along with external opportunities and threats. Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to conduct a SWOT analysis:

Identify Strengths (Internal)

  • Determine what the organization does well or its unique advantages.

  • Consider areas such as strong brand reputation, skilled workforce, unique products/services, technological capabilities, etc.

  • Questions to ask: What advantages does the organization have? What are its core competencies?

Determine Weaknesses (Internal)

  • Assess areas where the organization lags behind or faces challenges.

  • Look into aspects like poor financial performance, limited resources, outdated technology, organizational weaknesses, etc.

  • Questions to ask: What areas need improvement? Where does the organization lack compared to competitors?

Explore Opportunities (External)

  • Identify external factors that could provide growth prospects or positive outcomes.

  • Consider market trends, emerging technologies, untapped markets, partnerships, favorable industry changes, etc.

  • Questions to ask: What favorable trends exist in the market? Are there new opportunities the organization can leverage?

Analyze Threats (External)

  • Assess external factors that could pose risks or challenges to the organization’s success.

  • Consider factors such as intense competition, economic downturns, changing consumer preferences, regulatory changes, etc.

  • Questions to ask: What are the potential obstacles or threats faced by the organization?

Compile and Evaluate Findings

  • Organize the identified factors into a SWOT matrix with four quadrants: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

  • Prioritize the most critical aspects in each category.

  • Look for connections between different factors and how they might influence each other.

Develop Strategies Based on Analysis

  • Use the SWOT analysis to develop strategies that leverage strengths, address weaknesses, capitalize on opportunities, and mitigate threats.

  • Align strategies with organizational objectives and goals. Create action plans and allocate resources accordingly.



The 5C analysis is a framework used to evaluate an organization’s internal and external factors comprehensively. It examines five key areas: Company, Customers, Competitors, Collaborators, and Climate (or Context). Here’s a guide on how to apply the 5C analysis:

Steps to Apply a 5C Analysis

  • Company

  • Analyze the organization’s strengths and weaknesses.

  • Assess its resources, capabilities, unique selling points, financial stability, leadership, culture, and strategic direction.

  • Evaluate the company’s performance in terms of products/services, operations, and market position.

  • Customers

  • Identify and profile different customer segments.

  • Analyze their needs, preferences, behaviors, purchasing patterns, and satisfaction levels.

  • Consider feedback, complaints, and suggestions received from customers.

  • Competitors

  • Identify direct and indirect competitors in the market.

  • Assess their strengths, weaknesses, market share, strategies, pricing, marketing approaches, and innovations.

  • Determine how competitors position themselves and their impact on your organization.

  • Collaborators

  • Evaluate relationships with suppliers, distributors, partners, and other stakeholders.

  • Assess the strength and reliability of collaborations.

  • Understand the impact of these relationships on your organization’s operations and success.

  • Climate (or Context)

  • Consider broader factors influencing the industry and market.

  • Evaluate economic, political, social, technological, legal, and environmental factors (PESTEL analysis) affecting your organization.

  • Understand industry trends, regulatory changes, societal shifts, technological advancements, and market conditions.

Analyzing and Using the 5C Analysis

  • Compile the findings for each of the 5Cs into a comprehensive assessment.

  • Identify patterns, connections, and dependencies between different areas.

  • Use the insights gained to inform strategic decision-making, develop marketing strategies, improve customer relations, enhance collaborations, and adapt to the changing business environment.

  • Regularly update the 5C analysis to accommodate changes and ensure it remains relevant and insightful.

Porter Analysis

Applying Porter’s Five Forces analysis involves examining the competitive forces within an industry to understand its attractiveness and the dynamics that affect an organization’s profitability. Here’s a guide on how to apply Porter’s Five Forces analysis:

Steps to Apply Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

  • Threat of New Entrants

  • Identify factors that discourage new competitors from entering the market.

  • Consider economies of scale, high initial investment, brand loyalty, government regulations, and proprietary technology.

  • Assess how easy or difficult it is for new entrants to establish themselves.

  • Bargaining Power of Buyers

  • Identify the concentration of buyers and their significance to the industry.

  • Assess the volume of purchases and the impact buyers have on prices and product quality.

  • Determine how much power buyers have in negotiating better deals or switching to alternatives.

  • Bargaining Power of Suppliers

  • Identify the concentration of suppliers and their control over crucial inputs.

  • Assess the availability of substitutes, switching costs, and the importance of the input to the industry.

  • Determine how much power suppliers have in influencing prices or terms.

  • Threat of Substitutes

  • Identify alternatives that can replace the organization’s offerings.

  • Assess the ease of switching to substitutes based on price, performance, or other factors.

  • Determine the threat substitutes pose to the industry and the organization.

  • Competitive Rivalry

  • Analyze the intensity of competition among existing competitors.

  • Consider the number of competitors, their diversity, growth rates, differentiation, and strategic goals.

  • Assess how rivalry impacts prices, innovation, and market share.

Analyzing and Using Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

  • Evaluate each force’s strength and its overall impact on the industry’s attractiveness and profitability.

  • Identify areas of strength and weakness within the industry’s competitive forces.

  • Use the analysis to formulate strategies to mitigate threats, leverage strengths, and capitalize on opportunities.

  • Regularly update the analysis to adapt to changes in the industry and maintain competitiveness.

PESTEL Analysis

Applying a PESTEL analysis involves evaluating various external factors that impact an organization by considering six key dimensions: Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental, and Legal factors. Here’s a guide on how to apply a PESTEL analysis:

Steps to Apply PESTEL Analysis

  • Political Factors

  • Assess the stability of the government and its impact on businesses.

  • Analyze regulations, taxation policies, trade tariffs, and political stability affecting the industry.

  • Economic Factors

  • Evaluate economic indicators such as GDP growth, inflation rates, interest rates, and employment levels.

  • Consider factors affecting consumer spending, purchasing power, and overall economic stability.

  • Social Factors

  • Analyze demographic shifts, cultural trends, lifestyle changes, and societal values.

  • Consider factors like population demographics, attitudes toward health, education, and social responsibility.

  • Technological Factors

  • Identify technological innovations and advancements impacting the industry.

  • Assess the organization’s technological readiness, adoption of new technologies, and potential for disruption.

  • Environmental Factors

  • Evaluate environmental regulations, climate change impacts, sustainability initiatives, and eco-friendly practices.

  • Consider how environmental factors influence operations, supply chains, and consumer preferences.

  • Legal Factors

  • Analyze laws, regulations, compliance requirements, and legal frameworks affecting the industry.

  • Consider potential legal risks, changes in regulations, and their impact on the organization.

Analyzing and Using PESTEL Analysis

  • Assess the impact of each PESTEL factor on the organization and the industry as a whole.

  • Identify opportunities and threats arising from these external factors.

  • Use the analysis to anticipate changes, spot trends, and adapt strategies to align with the external environment.

  • Develop contingency plans and strategies to mitigate risks or leverage opportunities presented by these factors.

  • Regularly update the analysis to stay informed about changes in the external environment.

VRIO analysis

VRIO analysis helps you identify competitive advantages by dissecting your resources and their strategic impact. In VRIO analysis, we need to consider a resource from four elements: Its value, rarity, imitability and the possibity of whether you are organized to use it or not. Here’s a guide on how to apply a VRIO analysis:

Steps to Apply VRIO Analysis:

1. Identify your resources and capabilities:

Make a comprehensive list of everything your company has access to, including:

  • Tangible resources: machinery, facilities, raw materials, financial resources
  • Intangible resources: brand reputation, intellectual property (patents, trademarks), customer data, employee skills and knowledge
  • Capabilities: the skills your company has developed to utilize the resources effectively. For example, having a strong sales team is a capability that leverages your customer base resource.

2. Conduct a VRIO Analysis on each resource/capability:

VRIO stands for Value, Rarity, Imitability, and Organization. Analyze each resource/capability using these four criteria:

  • Value: Does the resource/capability create a benefit for your customers and differentiate you from competitors?
  • Rarity: Is this resource/capability something that most competitors don’t have?
  • Imitability: Can competitors easily replicate this resource/capability, or is it difficult to imitate?
  • Organization: Does your company have the structure and processes in place to effectively exploit this resource/capability?

3. Evaluate the VRIO results:

Based on your analysis, categorize each resource/capability as:

  • VRIO: This is a strong competitive advantage. The resource is valuable, rare, difficult to imitate, and your company is organized to leverage it.
  • VI Only: This has potential but needs work. It may lack rarity or organizational support.
  • Other combinations: These may not be current strengths but could indicate areas for improvement or future opportunities.

4. Develop strategic actions:

  • Use the VRIO results to guide your strategic planning:
  • VRIO resources: Develop strategies to leverage and protect these advantages.
  • VI Only resources: Invest in making them more rare or develop organizational capabilities to exploit them better.
  • Weaknesses: Consider how to improve or address these resources/capabilities.

Analyzing and Using VRIO Analysis

  • Uncover hidden strengths within your organization
  • Guides you towards optimizing resource utilization
  • Helps set the course for future plans
  • Provide insights into potential opportunities and threats
  • Help streamline operations and reduce costs and identify areas where resources are underutilized or not contributing effectively
  • Fosters a deeper understanding of your company’s internal strengths and weaknesses

Situation Analysis Marketing Plan Example

Company Overview

ABC Beverages is a well-established company specializing in the production and distribution of non-alcoholic beverages. Founded in 2005, the company has grown steadily and currently offers a diverse range of refreshing and innovative drinks.

Internal Analysis


  • Strong brand reputation and recognition for quality and taste.

  • Diverse product portfolio catering to various consumer preferences.

  • Robust distribution network with established partnerships with major retailers.

  • Emphasis on sustainable packaging and eco-friendly practices.

  • Skilled and dedicated workforce committed to innovation.


  • Relatively higher production costs due to premium ingredients used.

  • Limited market presence in certain geographic regions.

  • Dependency on a few key suppliers for specialized ingredients.

  • Lagging behind in digital marketing strategies compared to competitors.

  • Challenges in maintaining consistent product availability during peak demand seasons.

External Analysis

Market Analysis

  • Growing consumer interest in healthier beverage options and functional drinks.

  • Intense competition from both established brands and new entrants in the health drink segment.

  • Increasing consumer demand for sustainable and eco-friendly packaging solutions.

  • Shift in consumer preferences towards online purchasing and home delivery options.

  • Economic downturn leading to cautious spending habits among consumers.

Competitive Analysis

  • Strong competition from global beverage giants offering similar products.

  • New entrants introducing innovative health-focused drinks targeting niche markets.

  • Price wars among competitors affecting profit margins in certain market segments.

  • Competitors’ aggressive marketing campaigns and social media presence.

  • Various strategic alliances and collaborations within the industry.

SWOT Analysis


  • Recognized brand name and quality products.

  • Diverse product range catering to different tastes.

  • Strong distribution network and commitment to sustainability.


  • Higher production costs affecting margins.

  • Limited market presence in certain regions.

  • Reliance on a few suppliers for key ingredients.


  • Growing demand for healthier beverages.

  • Expansion into new markets and segments.

  • Digital marketing and e-commerce growth opportunities.


  • Intense competition and price pressures.

  • Changing consumer preferences and economic uncertainties.

  • Regulatory changes impacting packaging and ingredients.


While ABC Beverages enjoys strong brand recognition and a diverse product lineup, it faces challenges in cost management and market expansion. Leveraging opportunities in the health beverage segment and enhancing digital marketing strategies will be crucial for sustained growth and market penetration.

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