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The Dynamic Programming Language Behind Magento

Vinh Jacker | 05-02-2024

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What is Magento programming language?

Magento uses PHP as its main programming language, which is widely used by web developers worldwide for e-commerce websites. PHP is flexible and can handle large-scale projects effectively. It’s commonly used for developing extensions, themes, and customizations in Magento.

However, Magento also relies on other languages and technologies for proper functioning. These include MySQL for databases, HTML, JavaScript, and CSS for frontend development, as well as other languages like LESS, Zend Framework, Apache, Nginx, Varnish, Redis, and Elasticsearch.

The benefits of using Magento’s programming language

  • Tailored for Online Stores: Magento’s coding language, PHP, is designed specifically for building e-commerce websites, providing specialized tools for online businesses.

  • Building Advanced Features: PHP allows for the creation of advanced features on websites, making it easier to implement complex functionalities.

  • Smooth Development: PHP supports smooth and well-organized web development processes, ensuring efficient and reliable progress.

  • Cost-Effective: PHP web development is often more budget-friendly than other languages, making it a cost-effective choice for businesses.

Object-Oriented Programming Concepts in Magento programming language

OOP concepts

  • Class

A class is a template or blueprint for an object (object is what we call an instance of a particular class). Think of a class as a container for functions (methods) designed to handle specific data. Let me illustrate with an example:


//example filename would be simpleclass.php
< ?php class SimpleClass { // property declaration public $var = 'a default value'; // method declaration public function displayVar() { echo $this->var;
}
}
?>

Here, you’ll find the syntax for declaring classes, along with an example method inside it, and the declaration of a property.

  • Method

Functions that are associated with objects are called Methods. Above, you can observe an example of a method displayVar method within the declaration of the SimpleClass class.

  • Instance

An instance is an object created by your class, comprising both state and behavior defined within the class. Take a look at this:

//example filename would be create_instance.php
 
< ?php include "simpleclass.php"; $ourObject = new SimpleClass(); $ourObject->displayVar();
 
?>

In this example, the line of code “$ourObject = new SimpleClass();” creates an instance (object) of the SimpleClass class. The subsequent line, “$ourObject->displayVar();”, accesses the method of the SimpleClass class on the $ourObject instance.

  • Inheritance

A class acquires all of the states and behaviors of another class through the process of inheritance. This works in PHP by adding your own class to an existing one. Look at this:

//example filename would be simpleclass.php
< ?php include "SimpleClass.php"; class MyClass extends SimpleClass { // class property declaration of "name" public $name = null; public function assignValueToObjectVar($val) { $this->name = $val;
}
 
public function printValueFromObjectVar() {
echo $this->name;
}
}
//here we'll create a instance of MyClass:
$myObject = new MyClass();
//we assigned value "Test Name" to object's $name property
$myobject-><code>assignValueToObjectVar('Test Name');
//we called method that echoes value from object's $name property
$myObject->printValueFromObjectVar();
?>
  • Abstraction

Representing important aspects without providing context or justifications is known as abstraction. It optimizes and eliminates unnecessary details, allowing one to concentrate on several ideas at once. Check out this example from php.net

< ?php abstract class AbstractClass { // Force Extending class to define this method abstract protected function getValue(); abstract protected function prefixValue($prefix); // Common method public function printOut() { print $this->getValue() . "\n";
}
}
 
class ConcreteClass1 extends AbstractClass
{
protected function getValue() {
return "ConcreteClass1";
}
 
public function prefixValue($prefix) {
return "{$prefix}ConcreteClass1";
}
}
 
class ConcreteClass2 extends AbstractClass
{
public function getValue() {
return "ConcreteClass2";
}
 
public function prefixValue($prefix) {
return "{$prefix}ConcreteClass2";
}
}
 
$class1 = new ConcreteClass1;
$class1->printOut();
echo $class1->prefixValue('FOO_') ."\n";
 
$class2 = new ConcreteClass2;
$class2->printOut();
echo $class2->prefixValue('FOO_') ."\n";
?>

The AbstractClass declaration in this example shows the “abstract level,” which is subsequently enhanced by ConcreteClass1 and ConcreteClass2. While their methods are identical, you may add an additional method to AbstractClass that will do slightly more complicated tasks in ConcreteClass1 and ConcreteClass2, saving you from having to code the “universal logic” in both extended classes.

  • Singleton

A singleton limits the creation of a class to just one object. Essentially, you can view the class itself as an instance (object). For instance, consider its widespread use with database connections. Instead of creating a new database connection for each class used at a given moment, a singleton allows you to utilize one connection throughout the project.

class Database
{
// Store the single instance of Database
private static $instance;
 
private function __construct() {
//database connection goes here
self::$instance = $link;
}
 
public static function getInstance()
{
if (!self::$instance)
{
self::$instance = new Database();
}
return self::$instance;
}
 
//our method that does something with database
public static function myDbMethod(){...}
}
 
//Usage of singleton classes differ a bit from classic approach
//where you create n instance and then do something with it.
$DB = Database::getInstance();
$Result = $DB->myDbMethod();

Is it necessary to have coding skills to work with Magento language?

You should at least become familiar with the fundamentals of PHP, including how to use classes, as Magento’s language code is quite complex and you cannot work with Magento without having some knowledge of the language. Look at how Magento layouts and themes function if your goal is to style the page only, without modifying the code.

Based on your particular business requirements, we are prepared to start from scratch and create a Magento site for you. Our custom development service makes sure that all legal requirements are met and that the code we write complies with Magento standards.

Jacker

Hello, I'm the Chief Technology Officer of Mageplaza, and I am thrilled to share my story with you. My deep love and passion for technology have fueled my journey as a professional coder and an ultra-marathon runner. Over the past decade, I have accumulated extensive experience and honed my expertise in PHP development.



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